Under the federal recalcitrant witness statute, 28 U.S.C. § 1826(a), when a witness refuses to testify or provide other information, including documentary evidence, the court “may summarily order his confinement . . . until such time as the witness is willing to give such testimony or provide such information.” This decision holds that section 1826 applies to post-judgment as well as pre-judgment discovery and testimony and to demands for written discovery (such as interrogatories) as well as oral testimony.