Article I, section 8 of the Constitution empowers Congress to enact uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy throughout the nation.  This decision holds that Congress violated the uniformity requirement when it raised US Trustee fees in 2017 because, at that time, it did not also raise the fees charged bankrupts in the six districts in Alabama and North Carolina that do not use the US Trustee Program.  While Congress may exercise flexibility in enacting special bankruptcy legislation to address particular regional needs, the fee differential can’t be justified on that ground as the only difference between the six exempt districts and the rest of the nation is that Congress enabled those districts–and only them–to not use the US Trustee Program.  What Congress cannot do in a single step; it cannot do in two steps–first creating a geographical difference and second basing a nonuniform bankruptcy law on that difference.