To pass 5th Amendment restraints on public taking of private property, a condition that a government entity imposes on a permit for development of private property must have an “essential nexus” to the government’s land-use interest and  have “rough proportionality” to the development’s impact on the land-use interest.  This decision holds that those tests apply to any condition imposed on the permit including monetary conditions, such as the traffic impact fee imposed as a condition in this case.  Also, the 5th Amendment test applies regardless of what governmental entity imposes the condition.  It applies equally to fees imposed by local legislative bodies as well as administrative or executive branches of local government.