The trial court did not abuse its discretion in denying the longshoremen’s union permissive intervention in this multi-sided litigation over an environmental impact report for the China Terminal which handles 17% of the cargo at the Port of Los Angeles. In ruling on a motion for permissive intervention, a court considers four factors: 1. whether the intervener has followed proper procedures; 2. whether the intervener has a direct and immediate interest in the action; 3. whether intervention will not enlarge the issues; and 4. whether the reasons for intervention outweigh any opposition by the existing parties. This decision upholds denial of the intervention motion under the fourth factor. The litigation was already very complex with 12 parties. The intervener union had the same interest as the city entities which were already parties to the suit. The city entities were actively pursuing that interest. Many other unions would be affected by the case and might also seek to intervene if the longshoremen’s union were allowed in.