In these individual lawsuits arising from VW’s emission defeat devices, the district court erred in reducing the juries’ punitive damage awards to 4 times actual damages.  Reprehensibility here was high–a years-long intentional deceit that defeated the fuel-economy and reduced emissions goals of car buyers.  The high reprehensibility plus relatively low actual damages warranted punitive damages of more than 4 to 1.  The lowest multiple a jury awarded was 8 times actual damages, which this opinion holds was constitutionally permissible and should be applied in each case since they all involved the same wrongful conduct.