A plaintiff may state a viable CLRA claim based on the defendant’s nondisclosure in any of the four circumstances that Limandri allows a fraud claim based on nondisclosure.  Here, plaintiff states a viable CLRA claim based on the defendant hospital’s failure to disclose to emergency room patients that it would charge an evaluation and management services fee that could amount to as much as several thousand dollars–on top of other fees for services rendered in its emergency room.  The hospital had exclusive knowledge that it was charging the fee even if it might have been revealed on the Chargemaster listing of its charges that the hospital was required to and did file with the state.   The plaintiff adequately alleged damage by averring that he would have gone elsewhere if the fee had been disclosed before he was seen.  Government regulations governing hospital emergency room charges do not preempt or create a safe harbor from liability under the CLRA or UCL.  The opinion follows  Torres v. Adventist Health System/West (2022) 77 Cal.App.5th 500 and disagrees with Gray v. Dignity Health (2021) 70 Cal.App.5th 225.