Disagreeing with Hardy v. America’s Best Home Loans (2014) 232 Cal.App.4th 795 and Gray v. La Salle Bank (2023) 94 Cal.App.5th 1215, this split decision holds that Fed. R. Civ. P. 41’s two dismissal rule bars later litigation in state court even if limited to state law claims so long as the second dismissal was in federal court on a case over which the federal court exercised federal question jurisdiction.  State courts must give federal judgments the same effect a federal court would.  Federal common law governs the res judicata effect of federal court judgments in federal question cases.  Hence, the two-dismissal rule applies to federal court judgments in diversity cases, barring later suit on the same cause of action whether in state or federal court and regardless of whether the later suit is brought on state or federal legal theories.