Each class member must establish Article III standing in order to recover relief in a case in federal court. Here, TransUnion included incorrect OFAC terrorist information in its credit files on 8,000 class members but issued credit reports to third parties with the incorrect OFAC information only as to 1,600 of the class members. This decision holds that only the 1,600 have Article III standing, and the rest must be denied relief in federal court, even if the FCRA grants them a cause of action and statutory damages. Incorrect information maintained in TransUnion’s files but not communicated to any third party does not cause the class member any concrete injury. Risk of future harm (through potential disclosure later) is not a sufficient concrete injury to justify standing to seek a retrospective award of damages. TransUnion’s violations of formatting requirements regarding responses to consumers’ requests for data in their credit files didn’t cause concrete injury either.