After Iran nationalized its oil industry in 1951, it owned the oil fields and Abadan oil refinery. Iram contracted with international oil companies for those companies to provide management and other services to operating companies that were incorporated in the Netherlands and owned in part by the international companies and in part by Iram. This decision holds that the international oil companies (or their successors) owed the workers at the Abadan refinery no duty of care to prevent them from suffering disease (such as mesothelioma) from asbestos exposure at the Abadan refinery. The international oil companies didn’t own the refinery premises or have control over its physical plant or its operations. The contract to provide management services to the operating companies did not create a duty of care to the refinery’s workers as they were not the intended beneficiaries of the management contract and the other Biakanja factors did not weigh in favor of a duty of care.