Three principles govern the award of monetary sanctions for discovery abuse. First, the court must award monetary sanctions against the loser of a discovery motion unless it finds that either the loser acted with substantial justification or imposition of sanctions would be unjust under the circumstances. Second, the monetary sanctions may only be imposed based on attorney fees and costs incurred a result of the loser’s sanctionable conduct. Third, only reasonable attorney fees and costs may be awarded. Here, the trial court did not abuse its discretion in awarding only $542,000 in monetary sanctions out of the $2 million requested. Substantial evidence supported its findings that much of the fees requested were either not incurred as a result of the sanctionable conduct or were not reasonable in amount, or both. Substantial evidence also supported the trial court’s determination that the loser’s law firm had not advised the loser to engage in the conduct resulting in sanctions and so the trial court did not abuse its discretion in awarding fees and costs only against the loser and not its attorneys.